Thursday, August 27, 2020

Moo Cow Frozen Yogurt

Moo Cow Frozen yogurt it is additionally low in calories and high in calcium and protein. Truth be told, it contains a higher substance of calcium per 100g when contrasted with milk and cheddar! Moo Cow is the most amazing solidified yogurt as far as calcium content, with an incredible 844. 3mg of calcium per 100g serving. Other than being high in calcium, FroYo additionally contains all the gainful elements of yogurt, for example, probiotics (the â€Å"good bacteria†) with medical advantages extending from boosting the safe framework, helping assimilation, bringing down cholesterol just as battling pressure and allergies.Frozen yogurt needs to have 107 suitable â€Å"live and active† lactic corrosive microorganisms per gram at time of assembling so as to be powerful, and Moo Cow contains 1. 8 x 107 acido philusbifidus thermophilus, as examined by the Chemical Laboratory of Malaysia. characteristic goodness and an entire loads of medical advantages. Live and dynamic cul ture gives great microbes that improves stomach related system.The words â€Å"Live Active Culture† allude to the living life form Streptococcus, Thermophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus which convert purified milk to yogurt maturation. Presently, rather than yogurt and yogurt drinks, there is solidified yogurt! Which I love ~†¦ Moo Cow sells solidified yogurt of a few assortments of flavors, including an odd and brave endeavor of ice kacang flavor. in contrast to other solidified yogurts, the garnishes are truly healthy.From selections of oats, sunflower seeds, raisins, prunes, cornflakes, pumpkin seeds and nuts. You likely think its no fun and dull, yet it ends up being shockingly awesome. also, in the event that you are viewing your wellbeing (and for the women, weight and figure), what about simply switch the dessert with all characteristic decency of solidified yogurt. Reference http://goodyfoodies. blogspot. com/2012/03/moo-bovine solidified yogurt-gardens-shoppi ng center. html http://foodeverywhere. wordpress. com/2011/08/01/moo-cow solidified yogurt/

Saturday, August 22, 2020

MOTIVATION Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Inspiration - Research Paper Example In this way Motivation or Motives go about as a lot of mental impetuses that contribute in changing over the necessities, needs and wants of a person into compelling drives to help accomplish ultimate objectives and motivators. Hereafter inspiration likewise helps a person in successfully diminishing the pressure picked up from the developing arrangement of wants and needs to accomplish or achieve closures and objectives (Bowkowski, 2011, Ch.5). The inward drive of a person to fulfill the developing need or need can be reflected as follows. Figure 1 (Bowkowski, 2011, Ch.5) Difference among Traditional and Current Approaches to Motivation Different arrangements of Motivation Theories have picked up rising up out of the conventional to the cutting edge administrative periods. These various hypotheses identified with the Traditional and Modern setting owes some particular contrasts that can be featured as follows. The Traditional Theories identified with inspiration center around render ing a viable examination of the activity condition or work environment of an individual and the various sorts of remunerations expected to improve the exhibition levels of the representatives. Here remunerations go about as inherent inspirations to enable a person to produce the required drive to accomplish the ultimate objective. On the opposite the Current Approaches to Motivation depend for the most part on three sorts of speculations like Content, Process and Reinforcement that contribute in forming the inspirational conduct of a person to accomplish the ultimate objectives. Distinguishing proof and Description of Content Theories of Motivation dependent on Employee Needs The Content Theories of Motivation will in general work dependent on a reason that specific components are capable in making an inward drive in a person to produce a craving to accomplish ultimate objectives and in this manner satisfy the array of requirements and needs emanant in one’s mental level. In this way using Content Theories the administrators will in general increase a comprehension of the components that will in general drive or encourage the vitality in a person to accomplish wanted closures. Content Theories being identified with the unsatisfied needs or needs of an individual is likewise alluded to as Needs Theory (Bowkowski, 2011, Ch.5). Distinguishing proof and Explanation of Process Theories of Motivation The Process speculations of Motivation identify with the Cognitive components utilized by a person to choose the conduct procedure or ascribes expected to explicitly satisfy an ideal arrangement of targets or achieve the objectives set. Thus the individual needs to successfully assess whether the factor decisions for inspiration are resultant or compelling to accomplish end targets. Therefore in this inspiration relies upon factors like the qualities of the objectives set to accomplish, besides in whether impartial access is existent in helping an individual addi tion the necessary open doors in accomplishing wanted finishes lastly in whether one has the necessary degree of intensity in assisting with raising the desire for meeting ultimate objectives. Critical Process Theories identify with Expectancy, Equity, Satisfaction-Performance, Goal-Setting and Reinforcement (Bowkowski, 2011, Ch.6). Portrayal of Reinforcement Theory of Employee Motivation The Reinforcement Theory of Motivation works for the most part along four parameters: Positive and Negative Reinforcements and Punishment and Extinction. Positive and Negative Reinforcement standards for the most part center around rousing an individual’s execution through the age of remunerations and furthermore

Friday, August 21, 2020

Simple Ways to Improve Your Writing Skills

Simple Ways to Improve Your Writing Skills No one is born a perfect writer. Everyone has to learn and improve their skills. Even after youve finished school, you should still work to improve your writing skills. Fortunately, there are plenty of easy and accessible ways to improve your skills. Note that I didnt say quick. Any sort of improvement requires a time commitment. However, if youre willing to put in the time and effort, and learn to curb procrastination, the result can be clearer, better work that attracts publishers, clients, and additional work opportunities. Here are sixteen ways you can boost your writing skills. Take a class There are online and offline classes. Some are free and some charge a fee. They may be offered by community colleges, extension agencies, libraries, or you may be able to audit a college course. You dont have to go for a full degree. Identify the areas in which you need help and sign up for some instruction. Join a writers group Good writers groups give you constructive feedback on your work (and give you the chance to offer the same to other writers). They can point out mistakes and things that arent clear, as well as help with structural issues. Find a mentor If you can find another writer who is willing to act as your mentor, this can be a valuable relationship. He or she can offer suggestions for your work and help you through the publication process. Practice This is the best way to improve your writing. All artists get better with practice. With every new work, work to address the things that gave you problems the last time. The more you write, the faster youll improve and the more youll grow as a writer. Master revision and editing The freedom of writing first drafts is fun but the work isnt finished until its been revised and polished. You cannot be a good writer unless you master revision and learn how to edit your work. Read your work out loud When you read aloud you see mistakes that your eyes just glanced over. You also hear if your dialogue sounds real or stilted, or if your work flows smoothly from sentence to sentence and topic to topic. Learn the rules Some writers claim that their work is groundbreaking and that they dont have to follow the rules, much less bother to learn them. The most successful rule breakers are the writers who first learned the rules and then learned how to break them for effect. They arent ignorant of the rules and their knowledge makes them stronger writers, even when it seems like they threw all the rules out the window. Consciously breaking the rules is different from not knowing them. Read Reading exposes you to different styles of writing and lets you see how a good writer constructs their work. Youll also benefit from reading bad writing. (Plus it gives you that, I can do better than this, boost.) Dont rely on your spelling/grammar checker These are helpful tools, but they arent always right. A spellchecker wont tell you if youve used the word correctly, only that youve spelled it correctly. A grammar checker may be too overzealous, leading to constructions that might be technically correct but which ruin the tone of your work. Or it might miss something altogether. Use an old-fashioned dictionary and thesaurus and learn how to edit your own work. Rewrite old work Take an old piece and rewrite it. Not only is this practice, it gives you the chance to see how youve improved since you first wrote the piece. Rewrite the work of other writers You dont want to do this for publication because youre teetering close to plagiarism. However, rewriting good work lets you deconstruct the sentences and construction so you can better see how it all works together. You can also experiment with forms (turning prose into poetry, for example), or turn a tragedy into a comedy. Its also good writing practice. Attend a writers conference/workshop/retreat Conferences, workshops, and retreats can offer seminars, quiet time for writing, critique groups, or classes. When looking for events to attend, look closely at which ones will offer you the most benefit before you spend your money. Outline You dont have to outline like you did in school with Roman numerals and headings, but it can be helpful to organize your thoughts before you begin to write. This may be as simple as writing, This happens, then this, then that, on a sheet of paper, or you might want to write some scenes or topics on index cards and fit them in the correct order before you begin. A little organization before you begin can lead to a cleaner draft and a story that makes more sense. Invest in your writing There are plenty of free resources to help you improve your skills, but at some point youre likely going to have to be willing to put forth some money. Good reference books, conference fees, and tuition all require money. Set aside some savings and invest in your work when necessary. Expand your vocabulary Take the time to improve your vocabulary. The more words you know, the more tools you have to work with. Look up a new word every day or use a Word a Day calendar or screensaver. If you run into a word you dont know while youre reading, or if a speaker uses a word you dont know, look it up. Be informed The more informed you are about your industry, world events, or writing in general, the more choices you have about what to write and how to write it. This will keep you from writing the same things over and over again. Youll also be able to write more authoritatively. Improvement is always possible. Even if you think you cant get better, you can. To get the most bang for your buck, identify which areas of your writing are giving you the most trouble and look for resources that will help you correct them. (Photo courtesy of Prashanth dotcompals)

Monday, May 25, 2020

Business Ethics - 820 Words

Nika Krikheli Chapter 5 Questions Mr. John Long 10/9/2013 1. First of all, the word work can be separated in two parts: verb or noun. As a noun work can refer to particular accomplishment, like homework or a job or employment. As a verb it can be used as working for government or as a teacher or as a coach and etc. Work can also be referred as an activities performed in exchange for wages. Work can be separated in three main parts which are: job, career, and calling. Job is described as work where self-identity is independent of activity. Career involves development between self and activity. Career is connected to activities which are â€Å"morally inseparable†. Work does have value, because working gets people paid, and†¦show more content†¦So basically, to it is employer’s responsibility to make work meaningful. For example when I was working in cafà ©, I wouldn’t do anything if I wasn’t told to, why? Well, because I was getting paid anyways but there were also time when I didn’t know what to do so I needed employer to tell me. 6. Human fulfillment is when work is the primary activity through people developing their full potential as human beings and trying to express their potential to the fullest. Liberals do not think that there are objective norms to determine the kind of person everyone should be. Whether work is meaningful is determined by the worker. Liberals recognize that we should make ethical assessments of work on the basis of how work affects workers. They would criticize by saying that human fulfillment school makes judgment on the basis of some vision of what makes a good meaningful life. On another hand liberals make judgment in terms of how work affects a worker’s ability to make free decisions about their ownShow MoreRelatedBusiness Ethics : Ethics And Business943 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscussions in Business is Ethics. 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Thursday, May 14, 2020

Financial Analysis of Bevan Industries

Financial Analysis of Bevan Industries Bevan Industries’ current cost of capital From the given information, the cost of capital for Bevan Industries comprises of the cost of debt, the cost of preferred stock, and the cost of common stock. A combination of all these three components constitutes the current cost of capital of the firm. This is also known as the firm’s Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC). Discussed hereunder is the step by step calculation of Bevan Industries’ current cost of capital (Barber, 2004). Cost of Debt (Cd) Cd = I (1 TR) Where I is the Interest Rate on Debt TR is the Tax Rate Cd = {(30,000,000 X 0.06) / 25,000,000} X (1 – 0.28) = 0.072 X 0.72 = 0.05184 = 5.184% Cost of Common Stock (Ccs) Based on the given information, the cost of common stock is calculated using the formula Ccs = Cd + risk premium rf = (20 X 8) / 160 = 1 (rf is the risk free rate) Ccs = 5.184 + 0.75(1) = 5.934%. Cost of Preferred Stock (Cps) Cps = {preferred stock dividend/ market price of preferred stock (1 – flotation cost)} In this case, there is no flotation cost, thus = (0.04 X 100) / 20 = 20% Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is given by the sum of the above components. WACC = Cd + Ccs + Cps = 5.184% + 5.934% + 20% = 31.118%. 2. The new financial requirement The working capital falls by about 15m, while the additional investment costs 75m. Total additional cost = 75m 15m = 60m. From the initial conditions, the total investment is given by 30m + 100m + 160m = 290m Total investment = 290m 60m = 230m. 3.The three proposed financing options Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) can be found using the formula below (Barber, 2004). WACC = (Md/V) X k (1-T) + (Mp/V) X {Dp/Pp(1-Fp)} + (Mc/V) X {g + Dc(1+g) /Pc(1-Fc)} Where V is the firm’s total value given by the sum of the debt, the preferred stock and the Common stock. Md is the market value of the debt; Mp is the market value of the preferred stock; and Mc is the market value of the Common stock. k is the current market interest rate; and T is the tax rate. Dp is the annual dividends for the preferred shares; Pp is the market price of the preferred shares; and Fp the flotation costs of preferred shares. Dc, Pc, and Fc are the dividend, market price, and flotation costs of common stock respectively. First option (debt) Cost of debt = {(100m X 0.06)/230m} = 2.6% Second option (common stock) Cost of Common stock = 100m/230m = 43.48% Third option (Preferred stock) Cost of preferred stock = 100m/230 = 43.48% Weighted Average Cost of Capital is therefore given by the sum of the above three components WACC = 2.6% + 43.48% +43.48% = 89.56%. The advantages and disadvantage of each of the proposals made by the bankers From the bankers’ pieces of advice to Phil Bevan, three basic financing opportunities are presented. Basically, he is faced with a dilemma of either considering Common shares stock, preferred stock or debt financing to aid stabilize the business. However, before a decision is made, he should be in a position to understand the cost associated with each. This implies that he will scrutinize each proposal’s merits and demerits, but with cost of the capital, flexibility, risk the proposal is associated with, control and timing as the basic guidelines. Capital management definitely guides business owners to attain sole objective of an optimal capital structure (Dewatripont and Tirole, 1994). For instance, cost of capital is a cornerstone for measuring the profitability’s of varied investments (Harris and Raviv, 1991). It is thus essential to identify the merits and demerits, with reasons, of each proposal before a recommendation is made. This is discussed as under. Debt Issue Issuing corporate debt is one method of financing different business activities. These activities encompass business expansion or need to carry out research and development. An organization’s debt is signified by bonds. Bonds are future instruments sold to the willing investors. Phil Bevan is likely benefit from accepting Hiram J. Pipesucker’s proposal of debt financing in the following ways. Interest payments are tax deductible The interest charged on debt issued is tax allowable. This implies that its cost is likely to be cheaper as compared to other sources. Often, when an organization issues stock, it pays taxes on the income generated. This leads to a higher liability in form of tax to be paid (Harris and Raviv, 1991). When debt is issued, however, interest is paid to debt holders. Interest has to be paid to the bondholders annually. Debt issue thus has an advantage of due to the fact that the interest paid is tax-deductible. This generally translates to a larger savings in form of tax to be paid by the business to the bondholders. The allowable tax reduces interests to be paid hence increasing profitability. Debt issue avoids dilution of earnings per share or control within the business Debt issue does not interfere with the control of the business, i.e. it at all times avoids the dilution of earnings per share. If Phil Bevan adopts the proposal of issuing debts to raise its capital, he shall have avoided a likelihood of change of control or ownership. It therefore presents the owner with an opportunity to maintain its control as the earnings per share is maintained and not diluted. Long term financing approach Debts issue is a long term approach to raising finances. If Phil Bevan is for the opinion that he invests in a project with duration more than 20 years from beginning to the end, issue bond or debt is the best option to for the business to obtain long funding. On this premise, if he gets a loan from the financial institution, say a bank, the repayment terms and the duration of the loan will be optimally determined by the bank. Besides, Phil Bevan is privileged to choose the terms and the time period of bond maturity. The maturity date is such a time he is to pay back bondholders the principal amount. The date to maturity is always a long term period. Debt issue cost is fixed and the amount of principal repaid does not change overtime Debt issue is also advantageous due to the fact that the principal amount does not change overtime but remain fixed until the date of maturity (Heinkel and Zechner, 1990). This is beneficial as the owners can plan optimally to repay the principal before the maturity date reaches. The repayment terms are usually better on new debt issues than when compared business loans. Lower level of returns to the investors Usually, debts issue presents a lower rate of return to the investors as opposed to the common stock. This implies that if Phil Bevan considers this proposal, it shall have reduced to the amount to be paid to the investors hence profitability. However, debts issue has the following demerits to a business when used as a source of financing. Adds more risk to the business If Phil Bevan considers the proposal of debts issue, he may place the business in a risky position. This is due the fact that debt issue has restrictions on the limit of how much debt to be used. Basically, it presents a frontier as to how much debt can be used to finance the business. It is worth noting that an excess use of debt may plunge the business into bankruptcy. Compulsory maturity date Debts issue as source of finance has as well a disadvantage maturity date. This implies that the capital invested must perform and provide returns faster enough and this return must be passed over to the investors. It carries fixed charges Regardless whether a business has profitable cash flows or not, a fixed charge is imposed to the business. This may plunge a business into financial crisis in events that the fixed charged cannot be met due to lack of earnings. Common stock and retained earnings The cost of common stock and retained earnings is the rate of return an investor requires to make demands to make a common stock investment in the business. As opposed to debts issue, it does not generate tax benefits due to the fact that dividends are paid after taxes (Heinkel and Zechner, 1990). If Phil Bevan adopts Rollo Strauss proposal to invest in common stock, he is likely to experience the following benefits: Common stock financing is devoted to the business and the intended projects. Those who invest in the business only realize their investment in situation where the business has better earnings or cash flows. This is only in an event of market flotation or a sale to fresh investors. There is the advantage of skills that come along with equity finance. For instance, angel investors and venture capitalists do come into the business with valuable management skills, acquaintances and knowledge that improve the business performance. This implies that Phil Bevan is likely to benefit from investors strategic decisions and decision making. Common stock financing does not entail fixed payments When a business uses common stock as source of finance, the fixed payments demanded by investors cease to exist. In other words, it implies that dividends are only to the investors when earnings are available. As opposed to the debts issue where payments have been made regardless of presence of cash flows or not, common stock financing has an advantage of varying payments. Payment can for example be made when the business makes better earnings. Lastly, the invested capital is not being repaid. As opposed to the debts issue where the principal has to be repaid fully after the maturity period, common stock is beneficial to a business due to a reason that it has no maturity date on the securities and thus the invested capital can be necessarily not be refunded. The finance is there to stay in the business. Common stock financing, however, have the following disadvantages to a business which uses it as a source of finance. Dividend payments to shareholders are not tax deductible Often, when an organization issues stock, it pays taxes on the income generated. This leads to a higher liability in form of tax to be paid. On the other hand, when debt is issued, interest is paid to debt holders. Interest has to be paid to the bondholders annually. Debt issue thus has an advantage of due to the fact that the interest paid is tax-deductible (Harris and Raviv, 1996). This generally translates to a larger savings in form of tax to be paid by the business to the bondholders. The allowable tax reduces interests to be paid hence increasing profitability. This however is not applicable to the issue of stock. This signifies that it may prove expensive for the business. This makes its issuance cost higher than that that of debt. Dilutes the earnings per share to shareholders If Phil Bevan adopts the proposal of issuing stocks to raise its capital, he should be prepared for change of control or ownership. It therefore presents the owner with an opportunity of not being able to maintain business control as the earnings per share is diluted. It is time consuming and costly in the long run Issue of stock is often characterized with unnecessary procedures that make it appear demanding. It is always demanding, costly and takes a lot of time to fully effect. Venture capitalists for instance would demand to know the background of the business which many businesses are not for as they can always source for funds without the scrutiny. Preference stock Barry Nicebloke presents Phil Bevan with the proposal of using preferred stock to finance his business. This is a special equity security, having both properties of an equity and debt instrument. Often, they have no voting rights but do carry dividends. It presents a business with the following advantages when used as source of finance (Myers and Majluf, 1984). Avoids dilution of the earnings per share to shareholders Some forms of preferred stock issue do not interfere with the control of the business, i.e. it at all times avoids the dilution of earnings per share. If Phil Bevan adopts the proposal of issuing preferred stock to raise its capital, he shall have avoided a likelihood of change of control or ownership. It therefore presents the owner with an opportunity to maintain its control as the earnings per share is maintained and not diluted. He can thus make strategic decisions that affect the business for success. Preferred stock does not carry fixed charges A fixed charge is imposed to the business depending as to whether the business makes better earnings or not. Dividends are often marked as a percentage of a par value and preference shares dividend can at times be negotiated as floating. The major disadvantage of preferred stock is that interest payable is not tax deductible (Myers and Majluf, 1984). The interest charged on preferred stock issued is tax allowable. This implies that its cost is likely to be cheaper as compared to other sources. Often, when an organization issues debt, it pays taxes on the income generated. This leads to a higher liability in form of tax to be paid. This generally translates to a larger savings in form of tax to be paid by the business to the bondholders. The allowable tax reduces interests to be paid hence increasing profitability. This however is not applicable to the preferred stock issuance. From the presentation above, Phil Bevan should accept Hiram J. Pipesucker’s proposal which is about using debts issue as source of finance. This is basically applicable in this case due to the fact that this source of financing enables him benefit from benefits of tax allowable on interest’s payments, assured level of control of his business without external disturbance and due to the reason that it presents lower returns to the investors. Debt financing is thus recommended. Assessing whether the advice given by each of the bankers is in the best interests of Bevan Industries and why such advice should be treated with caution. Consideration on whether to accept the proposals given by bankers should be made to the flexibility, timeliness and cost of each proposal. Besides these, the business’ economic conditions, market conditions, operating conditions and financial conditions presented by each proposal should be checked and scrutinized. For the Bevan Industries, Phil Bevan, the CFO, is concerned that his capital structure is not as efficient as it might be. In particular, he is concerned about the amount of the business funded by short term debt and that his overall gearing level is quite low. This scenario presents him with different opportunities. The proposal of debts issue might be of weight but is disqualified forthright. This is because, as per the business needs, debts issue is applicable for long term financing but Phil Bevan is concerned about the amount of the business funded by short term debt. Debts issue proposal is not appropriate as it results in a more business financial risk. Phil Bevan is not ready to take the risk. Current levels of exceptional debt will impact on the amount of finance raised. Higher levels of debt as well as the preferred stock will result in wider variations to earnings per share. This is because they come forth with higher fixed obligations that must be paid. For instance, he must be ready to pay the interest to debt holders and fixed dividends to preferred stock holders. He is thus likely to incur more financial risks as opposed to his desired need to improve short term debt and balancing gearing ratio. On the other hand a proposal to undertake common stock issue may be applied. However, it as well has effect of earnings per share on the business or control influence. Due to the fact that Phil Bevan is concerned with the control level of the business, if he goes for this proposal, he is deemed to diluting the control level which he is not for. Reference Barber, J. R., 2004. â€Å"Cost of Capital with Flotation Costs.† Quarterly Journal of Business and Economics, Vol. 43, 2004. Retrieved at Dewatripont, M., and J. Tirole, 1994, â€Å"A theory of debt and equity: diversity of securities and manager-shareholder congruence,† Quarterly Journal of Economics 109, 1027-1054. Harris, M., and Raviv, A., 1991. â€Å"The theory of capital structure,† Journal of Finance 46, 297-355. Harris, M., and Raviv, A., 1996. â€Å"The capital budgeting process: incentives and information,† Journal of Finance 51, 1139-1174. Hart, 1995. Firms, Contracts, and Financial Structure, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Heinkel, R. Zechner, J. (1990), The Role of Debt and Preferred Stock as a Solution to Adverse Investment Incentives, Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis 25 (1): 1–24 [p. 2] Jensen, M., and W. Meckling., 1976. â€Å"Theory of the firm: managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure,† Journal of Financial Economics 3, 305-360. Kieso, D. E., Weygandt, J. J., and Warfield, T. D., 2007. Intermediate Accounting (12th ed.), New York: John Wiley Sons, p.  738 Modigliani, F., and Miller, M., 1958. â€Å"The cost of capital, corporation finance, and the theory of investment,† American Economic Review 48, 261-297. Myers, S., and Majluf, N., 1984. â€Å"Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have,† Journal of Financial Economics 13, 187-221. Rosenbaum, J., and Joshua, P., 2009. Investment Banking: Valuation, Leveraged Buyouts, and Mergers Acquisitions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons. Scharfstein, D., and Stein, J., 2000. â€Å"The dark side of internal capital markets: divisional rent seeking and inefficient investment,† Journal of Finance 55, 2537-2564. Stein, J., 1997. â€Å"Internal capital markets and the competition for corporate resources,† Journal of Finance 52, 111-133. Subrahmanyam, A., and Titman, S., 1999. â€Å"The going-public decision and the development of financial markets,† Journal of Finance 54, 1045-1082. Tirole., 2006. The Theory of Corporate Finance, Princeton University Press. Yee, K. K., 2000. Aggregation, Dividend Irrelevancy, and Earnings-Value Relations. Contemporary Accounting Research 22 (2): 453–480.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Actions Speak Louder than Words in Michael Hoffmans Film,...

Expression is universal. The majority of all people can interpret exasperated sighs, wide eyes, loud voices, clapping, etc. Even when characters are not physically speaking, movies emit numerous messages through actor portrayal. Audiences visually experience characters’ physical reactions which are not included in books. The actors’ individual portrayals of characters in Michael Hoffman’s 1999 film, William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, enhance the extreme personalities of characters already established in William Shakespeare’s play. By using tone of voice and pace of speech, the movie characters offer insight into personality more clearly than expressed in books. Although Shakespeare’s words alone indicate Egeus’s disproval of Lysander, the movie stresses his hatred for disobedience through his speech addressing Hermia, Demetrius, and Lysander in the initial scene. In attempt to demonstrate authority over the noncompliant lovers, Egeus speaks loudly while clearly pronouncing each syllable as if spitting the words out of anger. The movie offers a desperate side to Egeus not illustrated in the text because he is so frantic for control that yelling is his sole way of catching the lover’s attention and regaining the dominance that he craves. The movie also illustrates how Egeus remains consistent with his disapproval of Lysander because when Theseus proclaims the lovers’ marriage, Egueus’ facial expression is furious, demonstrating how he does not grow as a

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Small Firm Growth is the Only Measure of an Entrepreneurs Success

Question: Discuss about theSmall Firm Growth is the Only Measure of an Entrepreneurs Success. Answer: Introduction: An entrepreneur is a person who follows his passion and gets on the path of achieving it through a small firm. Growth of a small firm can be considered to be stepping stones of the entrepreneurs success (Cooper Gimeno, 1992). As the business grows, the entrepreneur gains higher exposure to his business environment and then steadily is able to adapt as well as take measure to make the business powerful in the competitive market. Entrepreneurs design the economys future and therefore even government has taken various steps to help their small businesses grow in the form of various incentives and tax benefits (Audretsch Keilbach, 2004). Growth of there is not beneficial for their monetary interest but also psychological interest. It helps in motivating them as well as boosting their confidence. Growth of small firms definitely defines one aspect of the success of the entrepreneur, be it Steve jobs, Dhirubhai Ambani, or JRD Tata all started with a small firm the journey of their dreams and achieved to be the billionaires of the era. The stated preface or introduction speaks about a single aspect of the Success of entrepreneur that is Growth of Small Firm there are various other factors that contribute to their success (Bygrave, 2007). The Concept of Business growth is one of the primary and most important objective for various firms. Currently society has started giving due importance to this aspect and one of the major evidence is the list that is prepared by the leading media houses, journals and magazines of various successful and accomplished ventures. The basic reason small firm growth is given due priority by government is due to its valuable contribution to the economy. This stand as the major reason why the concept is given due importance. The concept and terminology of small firm and entrepreneurship is often been inter-linked with each other leading to confusion and ambiguity. In recent times it was considered that all new firms are established were run by their respective founders and owners. Hence, these successfulness of these businesess were often linked with the success of an entrepreneur. (Edvinsson Malone, 1997). The terminology entrepreneurship is used in much broader sense. It originally had a very specific connotation referring to the process of Seeding and functioning of of business, and anyone so engaged was considered as an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship in todays world give a wider prespective on occasion, the term is used interchangeably and replaced with enterprise. Lately the globe is driven by the ideology that the word entrepreneur is used for a specific kind of big tech firms or magnum opus start- ups which is lead by the stalwart proprietators like Mark Zuckerberg. Creation of new economic activities is a part through which the concept of Entrepreneurship is based. In growth if only amount of expansion is taken into consideration then growth is not a part of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship remains an paradox even now and the very basic idea that all the small firm establishments are generated and started by an entrepreneur is still under lot of consideration and topic of debate. Just a little reading or by just skimming and scanning about the topic would make the reader confused and may leave him with a different kind of curiosity (McDougall et al., 1992). Thus, concluding that only small firms growth is the only measure of an entrepreneurs success would be wrong and thus various other factors which the authorities of the subject have coined out should be studied and only then the success factors must be ascertained with successfulness of an entrepreneur. To measure current valuation of small businesses considering the country of origin, the primary thing that one needs to understand is what constitutes a small venture. As per the authority board , a small venture is independently owned and functioned and it shows very little influence in its industry and has very limited or less number of personnel working. So how can one differentiate between or rather is there can difference between a small firm owner and an entrepreneur? (Watson et al., 2003). Most of the small business are staretd as the ventures but not all the owners of the business be considered as entrepreneurs (Jennings Beaver, 1997) divided the small business into three categories. Income-replaced firms: These firms are built to facilitate incomes to the owners. The amount is very similar to what one used to earn while employed. The products they offer covers- retail merchandises, or a service like hairstyling or accounting. Most small firm are of this kind. Sociology firms: People begin the these firms to earn their livelihood while following a certain lifestyle. These firms shows the owners hobbies or favorite pursuits for example cricket, swimming, different adventure sports that will help the owner grow and expand . As a thumb regulation, these ventures dont do anything new or out of the box that might bring new aspects of innovation, and need to grow at an uncontrollable pace. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¨ Enterprising firms: These owners are people whoà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¨recognizes an opportunity and develops aà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¨product to fulfill some certain needs of market segment. They bring innovative products to market. Their primary aim is to expand their ventures and eventually capture into the other markets. What is Small Firm Growth? In an Ordinary scenario, growth of a firm is achieved in different levels step-by-step in a small business process (Bosma et al.,2004). A business venture under normal condition encounters three-levels of development process- (I) the Seed level, (ii) the Start-up level and, (iii) the Expansion level. The Seed level introduce a new well-formulated and thought idea into presence, the idea is screened refined and given a practical point so as to make the venture a feasible one in terms of the situation better off. The Start-Up level included procurement as well as accumulation of capital from different banking organizations and non-banking organization such as angle investors to give the idea a practical shape and be developed in the real world. The Expansion level deals with manufacturing or service capacity increment when the business grows the kind of demand generated is more than that of installed capacity hence the expansion is needed in order to bridge the gap between demand and supply. Where the one author has taken three levels of business development process while the authors (Bridge,ONeill Martin, 2013) has suggested four level of small firm growth: Each level of the business lifecycle inherits certain new or former hurdles. Stage 1: Existence under the stage One various Challenges are Encountered by the businesses and entrpreneurs such as Profitability issue faced since the inception of the idea, Feasibility of idea in the desired market segment, Fabricating and installing Business designs, Managing the financial clauses and statements etc. Stage 2: Survival the major Challenges there of are of Managing Monetary Collection, Managing Sales achievable, Managing the financial clauses and statements, Maintaining and Establishing Customer interface, Setting up Market recognition etc. Stage 3: Success the challenges here are of a little higher magnitude such as Managing Surplus Revenue, Managing Extra Customers, Managing the financial clauses and statements Robust Management, Market Head-On competition etc. Stage 4: Take-off and landing the challenges faced here are more of a managerial Increasing Market Head-On, Managing the financial clauses and statements, Entering into New ventures, Additional fresh Products/Services, Existing Business Expansion etc. The authors backed the concept of the multiplelevel model of various developmental growth levels when the authors performed an extensive analysis. They defined the levels as mentioned below: The Existence level is quite similar to the previously stated Seed level explained Mukherjee, while the Survival level mentioned is that stage when there are various options in hand open for further growth, the next stage that one can encounter is the Take-off level, in this very stage the owner decides to grow and expand the business venture to capitalize the larger region of market segment i.e. the owner is opting for expansion of ones business venture. In the last stage i.e. Maturity level the organization will attain that level when it exhibits certain trademark of a profound organization. In due time, the literati (Naman Slevin, 1993) came up with a derived inference that, its tedious to be specific in formulating the business development stages, this ambiguity prevails throughout the process (Business aeon). Despite these towering challenges to categorize and measure growth, literati still commonly considers the small firm growth as the major index of accomplishment. Since it is now considered a patois to recommend or to state that success needs growth and if not then it leads to obligation . Large number of literary works are available that represents various theories about rise and proliferation mostly linked with job generation. In yester years entrepreneurship came into the light because of its momentous contribution in the domain of generating employment opportunities Measuring change in Size firm growth should be researched to an extent in depth to understand the analysis of the forecaster take precedence over analysis of the results, i.e., the change in size, this is one of the main factor to measure the firms growth. Growth as a process measure It refers to growth as an extensive process of organizational alterations, which guides to this change in size and a start to end distance of other changes as well. Even if restricted to one of these individual aspects that guides ones behavior, growth as know its a heterogeneous phenomenon and therefore requires an extensive research. The Concept of New Firm Success The study of various measures which are pretient to new firms success is part of the most important and intriguing topics in the area of entrepreneurship. Although this area has been under hawk eye observation and studied from various different perspectives to gain insight, no clouser has been derived yet as far as the formulation of success and/or performance from the new business firm prospective is considered. It is moving away from the near possibilities of finding the common juncture or convergence of criteria that helps in scientific progress and uplift Enterprise (Ghobadian ORegan, 2006). Therefore, what should one can refer as accomplishment to in a young business ventures? Formalizing companys growth is extremely up hill task in every type business but the task is even more tedious when it comes to young business ventures. Young and fresh firms lack historical and past database and many have neither uniform financial norms nor index of performance up till now. Moreover, the firm might still incur losses whilst the sales being on a continus rise in the initial years.(Stuart Abetti, 1987). Due to this reason various profound distinguished authors questioned the foundation of success and eventually growth extensively on financial performance parameters. Some authors for example prefers to explain success as a measure of emulous to understand the refered initial time period of a new firm. One of the extreme view points represented through certain inputs and orientation is that the entrepreneurship and small businesses are different and the current performance of the business must be the last indicator to be opted to determine the strength and success of an indicator. Back in 1992 balanced scorecard was developed by (Kaplan Norton, 1992) it was basically a tool used to align the business activities with that of the management and its strategic vision and objectives, it creates a balance between the financial measure and non-financial measure and gives a more balanced tool to the manager in order to create a feedback and appraisal which is more robust and provides a practical report which in turn is effective for the firms growth. The tool uses the financial measures and operational measure basically related to consumer satisfaction (Perspective of Customer, Process Perspective of Business, Perspective for growth). As a matter of fact the balanced scorecard is one of the most acceptaded and most widely used tool in the organizations, be it government or private, non-profit organizations to facilitate organization planning and analyze how to measure the results of what is to be done. Hence, to encounter the redundancy it collects different view points on internal business process and its outcomes to continuously enhance the firms performance outcomes. Dimensions and Indicators of Success There are various factors that are paramount towards the success of the businesses like Innovation these Non-financial aspects are sometimes attributed along with the financial aspects, a research (Rhodes Butler, 2004) suggested there are 8 different parameters which are attributed to measure the success of the organization of which are related to the business and towards the entrepreneur. The four that relate to the business are: Resources of personnel: Relating quality and quantity of people available in the business at the operational and managerial level Infrastructure Resources: How robust and well buit the Information technology is Firm Resources: relations with consumers, suppliers and distributors, manufacturing and distribution processes, market share which establishes a place for the business in the marketplace. Financial Resources: cash and borrowings, bargaining power of the business. 4 Indicators proposed for the entrepreneurs are as follows . Financial Perspective: Related To Profit, Liquidity, Sales, Income and Profitability Customer Perspective Customer satisfaction, Number of customers, Loyalty Recommendations etc. Business Process Perspective: related to the various processes business follows such as manufacturing, distribution, sales and service etc. Business Volume: the amount of business organization has generated, market share captured. To determine the success of the organization proper variables should be considered as it happens some variables may focus on aspects which might show the business as successful whereas when other factors are considered the result might not be same (Sapienza et al., 1988) hence, the organization needs to make sure the right kind of variables they think perfectly describe the situation they consider as successful. To keep the right kind of approach towards the stated issue the management can decide upon the various factors and indicators with a perspective that can clearly define the objective of the firms vision and can be used to measure the success in the long term. We can agre that small firms growth is the indicator of the entrepreneurs success but it is just one aspect of it there are various indicators of success, In most of the industries the financial results and performance of the organization are considered as the most trustworthy way of determining the success but it is seen in some of the high technological industries such as Research and development a huge amount of capital is required in the initial stages and the return on investment may be very low or even negative in the initial years thus to tackle with the problem, it was proposed to include non-financial indicators such as product quality, design etc so depending upon the kind of Industry and type of organization indicator s might change to determine the successfullness hence right indicators should be selected to determine Entrepreneurs success that just taking firms growth into consideration. References: Cooper, A.C. and Gimeno-Gascon, F.J. (1992). 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The effects of human capital, organizational demography and interpersonal processes on venture partner perceptions of firm profit and growth, Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 18, No 2, pp. 145-164. Audretsch, D.B. and Keilbach, M. (2004). Entrepreneurship capital and economic performance. Regional Studies, Vol. 38, No 8, pp. 949-959. Bosma, N.; Van Praag, M; Thurik, R.and DeWit, G. (2004). The value of human and social capital investments for the business performance of start- ups, Small Business Economics, Vol. 23, pp. 227-236. Bygrave W. D., (2007). The Entrepreneurial Paradigm (I): A Philosophical Look at Its Research à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¨Methodologies, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 726 Bridge S O'Neill K, (2013), Understanding enterprise entrepreneurship and small business, Palgrave Macmillan, united kingdom.